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structure of bakelite

Glacial Acetic acid: Harmful: Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. It is an example of thermosetting resin of phenol and formaldehyde. The condensation reaction of formation of Bakelite is extremely exothermic (or) a water molecule is lost for the cooling process. Bakelite | chemical compound. It could also be used as binding agents and adhesives. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. JJ Rossouw - 18961371 A condensation polymerization reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the formation of Bakelite. ( Log Out /  A synthetic resin that is made from synthetic substances is Bakelite. A substance which has a molecular structure built completely from a large number of similar units bonded together known as polymers. Bakelite is an item a jewelry collector should keep an eye out for considering how prices have risen over the last few decades. Shellac is made from the excretion of Kerria Lacca insects (lac bugs). Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. Authentic bakelite jewelry can sell for thousands of dollars, so it's important you learn how to tell the difference between genuine and imposter plastic jewelry. [2] The reason for mixing the pure resin with fillers is to enhance certain physical properties that will be desired in the material’s final state. New Page 1. Structure Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. The chemical process and the final atomic structure of Bakelite are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. ( Log Out /  Due to the adverse properties of Bakelite, it could be used for several applications: As Bakelite is a good insulator, Bakelite is utilized in non-conducting parts of radios and several electronic devices such as switches, sockets, wire insulation, brake pads, etc. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. Since Bakelite is a manufactured, synthetic plastic containing incredible amounts of formaldehyde, asbestos and other extremely toxic polymers, those who produced these desirable products, put themselves at risk. What to learn next based on college curriculum. Its structure is made up of extensively cross-linked chains, which stop the chains from unfolding. Some examples of polymers are polythene, bakelite, rubber, etc. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. They are also called macromolecules. The commercial name of phenol formaldehyde resin is Bakelite. They have excellent electrical insulating character. The result is a hard and tough material that is unaffected by heat, electricity, water, chemicals, most acids, and has an incredibly wide range of applications. So, it is known as thermosetting plastic. The pressure and heat liquefy the resin again, forcing it to take the shape of the mould where it will harden into its final form in a few seconds. Figure 1 – The figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Red is one of the most popular colors of Bakelite jewelry with collectors. (2016). Bakelite First Synthetic Plastic – National Historic Chemical Landmark – American Chemical Society. The dangerous nature of Bakelite is from different sources: manufacturing, collecting and disposing. Formed by the reaction under heat and pressure of phenol and formaldehyde, generally with a wood flour filler, it was the first plastic made from synthetic components. These desired properties include: better mouldability, greater toughness and strength, and greater heat-, water-, chemical-, and shock-resistance. After this final setting of the material it will not be possible to heat and reshape it again. Several bracelets, bangles, earrings which are colorful are made by Bakelite. To get to the History of Bakelite we must travel back in time to the year 1907 when a Belgian-born chemist, Leo Bakeland came up with a process of combining Phenol with formaldehyde resin. In the structure of Bakelite, the phenol and formaldehyde are cross-linked. It has been aptly named as the ‘Material of a Thousand Uses’. Once content is flagged, it is hidden from users and is reviewed by myCBSEguide team against our … It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Baekeland discovered that carefully controlling the speed of the reaction between phenol and formaldehyde produced a mouldable resin. Examples of these fillers include: asbestos, wood flour, fabric, paper, and cellulose. A condensation polymerization reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the formation of Bakelite. One or more users have flagged this content as inappropriate. In mounting of samples of metal in metallography, Bakelite are used. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of acid or base as catalyst. Today, objects made from Bakelite are considered highly collectible, although in its glory days of the 1930s and 1940s, it was seen as an inexpensive alternative to high-end jewelry materials such as jade and pearl. Because Bakelite is easily shaped it is used in many different ways and in many different shapes and sizes. New York: Marshall Cavendish. The most readily found colors are yellow, ranging from butter yellow to dark butterscotch, followed by various shades of green.
It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Bakeland was looking for a replacement for shellac. Bakelite could be readily molded, and therefore, it could be used in producing different products. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Le résultat final est formé sur la surface d'un film spécial constitué d'éléments organiques ou inorganiques. Yum. Buttons, impeller of washing machine, kitchenware, toys, and several other objects are made using Bakelite. Mark describes the structure of Bakelite and how the links between molecules mean that it will not melt at higher temperatures (like celluloid did before it). The cost of molding gets reduced when inert filler is added. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite set to rigid, hard, scratch resistant, in fusible, water resistance, insoluble solids, which are resistance to non-oxidising acids and many organic solvents. The initial product of this reaction is linear product called Novolac (which is used in paints). ( Log Out /  Bakelite or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride was the first plastic made from synthetic components. Bakelite is made up of Phenol and formaldehyde. Structure of Bakelite Report ; Posted by Utpal Nath 1 year ago. (2016). Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. The reaction has to be carried out in pressure else the formed product will be brittle and the density of the material would be less. The synthetic components present in Bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde. [online] Available at: Encyclopedia Britannica. Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.Used as the basis for Bakelite, PFs were the first commercial synthetic resins (plastics).They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. Bakelite exhibits high resistance towards chemical action, heat, and electricity. Value of Old Plastic Jewelry . Polymers. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden.

Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Elvenkrafte.com. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. When fillers are added, the enhanced properties are, Higher electrical resistance, chemical resistance, and thermal resistance. Bakelite is the first plastic product to be put into industrial production. In the initial process of synthesizing, Bakelite involves in the phenol and formaldehyde heating in the presence of catalysts such as hydrochloric acid, ammonia, and zinc chloride. Write the names of the monomers of the following polymers: (a) Bakelite (b) Nylon - 6,6 This is the chemical structure of Bakelite. Its chemical name is phenolic. When the phenol and formaldehyde are mixed together, the reaction of the the chemicals under the correct pressure and temperature creates this amazing, hard plastic. The dielectric constant of Bakelite lies in the range of 4.4{\rm{4}}{\rm{.4}}4.4 to 5.4{\rm{5}}{\rm{.4}}5.4. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Bakelite is a plastic that is used for making many products, ranging from telephones, electrical gadgets, jewelry, to saucepan handles. The systematic name of bakelite is polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride. Several patterns were made in 1942, but steel was used instead in 1943 and recycled shell casings in 1944 and 1945. [2] The new mixture is then forced into heated moulds under high pressure. However, ingestion of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life. S Meyer - 16719794 This reaction creates even more heat until a cooling process is triggered. Some of the reinforcing fillers like wood flour, pulp of cotton, mica, gypsum, asbestos are added to resins of molding such as Bakelite. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or … An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. However, they are attacked by alkalies due to the presence of free hydroxyl groups in their structure. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. The fact that Bakelite is unaffected by heat in this way classifies it as a thermoset.[5]. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin called “Novolak,” which never became a market success. When heated Bakelite is malleable, it could be made into liquid. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. Change ), NT Conradie - 19673418 On cooling, it turns out to be rigid and hard permanently. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Structure of BakeliteDue to its hardness and durability, it was considered as a material for making pennies in the United States during World War II, due to copper being needed for shell casings. ( Log Out /  Build flawless & robust structure of bakelite strong as an ox with aid of leading steel giants. Besides fillers, the curing process could be accelerated by catalyst. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. Bakelite can also be tested using the “hot water” method. Bakelite is easy to identify because it has a slick-looking patina to the inner part of the bangle or on the back part of a brooch or piece. In general, the condensation polymer (or) phenolic resin is Bakelite. And Novolac on heating with formaldehyde undergoes cross linking to form Bakelite. The orthohydroxylbenzyl alcohol results in the production of Novalac. Ortho and parahydroxyl benzyl alcohol formation by the mixture of reactants of formaldehyde and phenol. [online] Available at: Anon, (2016). Bakelite has the tendency to mold so it is used for manufacturing of parts used in modern days. Posted on September 30, 2020 by . In the structure of Bakelite, the phenol and formaldehyde are cross-linked. Run the piece under hot tap water. Bakelite’s characteristics include having low electrical conductivity and high heat and chemical resistance. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Water and steam are then drawn off as the mixture cools, and a viscous brown resin remains. (2016). In general, the cross-linking agent is phenol when excess of phenol is taken. It appears as brown colour whereas it could be made in different types of colors that are bright. Once hard, it is crushed into a powder, which is then mixed with various fillers. Bakelite is abrand named material based on the thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, developed in 1907–1909 by Dr. Leo Baekeland. Author has 535 answers and 3M answer views Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol… File:3-D Structure of Bakelite.png. Bakelite in solid colors is the most recognizable type even without employing testing measures. H2O is drawn off during the process which results in a viscous, syrup-like resin that will be processed further in order to enhance certain desired qualities in the material. Bakelite could be made into several colors, because of its ability to make into several colors. Release date: 22 November 2012 [4], Image: https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, Figure 2 – A three-dimensional representation of the cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde. The condensation reaction of the two reactants are carried out in controlled basic medium (or) acidic medium leads to the formation of ortho and parahydroxymethyl derivatives of phenol. Curing is process which leads in the toughening of polymers and hardening of polymers by producing chains of cross-linked polymers. [6], When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound[1] and a common disinfectant[3], is mixed with formaldehyde (CH2O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat[2], an exothermic reaction results. A combination of formaldehyde and phenol leads to Bakelite. Polymers has high molecular mass. Bakelite is another name for phenolic resin, an early form of plastic. An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. [online] Available at: American Chemical Society. In the presence of cross-linking agent, Novolac goes through cross-linking process form Bakelite. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. This content has been hidden. [6] Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Date: 28-09-10. English. File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis; Metadata; No higher resolution available. [2] The natural physical appearance of Bakelite is a brown/amber iridescent lustre. [online] Available at: Wikipedia. The steps of reaction involved in the formation of Bakelite are. Explore Alibaba.com for structure of bakelite that meet all quality expectations. The preparation of Bakelite from condensation reaction of phenol and formaldehyde is written as. E-mail: [email protected] ... After further reaction, an insoluble and infusible body structure C-stage resin, also known as insoluble phenolic resin, is obtained. The trademark rights for this plastic are owned by a German company called Bakelite AG, in many countries. Structured data. It contains phenol, formaldehyde and a wood flour filler. Bakelite is derived by the polymerization of formaldehyde and phenol. Plastic and Bakelite are both organic polymers, having a very large molecular weight though there exists a difference between the two based on their properties and usage. CBSE > Class 12 > Chemistry 2 answers; Jd Chouhan 1 year ago (C6H6 o CH2o)X 0 Thank You. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. [1], Image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin. The monomers that are required in the formation of Bakelite are formaldehyde and phenol. If it gives off a formaldehyde smell, it is Bakelite. Bakelite is a Polymer made up of the Monomers Phenol and Formaldehyde. Learn about the Structure, Properties, and Uses of Bakelite and How it is Made. (2016). Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Bakelite. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite deforms permanently and retains its shape after being heated and moulded. 3-D_Structure_of_Bakelite.png ‎ (563 × 548 pixels, file size: 16 KB, MIME type: image/png) File information. The presence of hydroxyl group attached to aromatic benzene ring is phenol and CH2{\rm{C}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}CH2​ linked to the phenols indicates the presence of formaldehyde. For protective uses and as coating in industry, Bakelite could be used. Maneet Singh 5 months, 1 week ago. Bakelite is the first synthetic plastic and is known as a “material of thousand uses” due to its versatile applications. It can also be made into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is mixed with during the manufacturing process. Bakelite is a thermosetting plastic. Bakelite is an early plastic, created in 1907. The resin in stage A can also be cured by itself for a long time. © 2003-2020 Chegg Inc. All rights reserved. Material Science A244, M&M Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch, Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. (2008). Because of its high resistance towards heat and electricity, it is used to manufacture in several electronic instruments, parts of automobile, and switches. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. HJG Van Zyl - 18300111, https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin, http://www.elvenkrafte.com/bakelite%20presentation.htm, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/bakelite.html, https://global.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. Il peut être peint dans des couleurs différentes. Bakelite is used in making of jewelry. To enhance the strength and properties of Bakelite, fillers are employed so that Bakelite could be used for several applications. B Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Inventors and inventions. Muhammad Usman (2008-chem-02-B) Properties of required chemicals: 1. Let us check out the various properties and uses of Bakelite. [online] Available at. Bakelite has chemical formula of (C6H6O−CH2OH)n{\left( {{{\rm{C}}_{\rm{6}}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{6}}}{\rm{O - C}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{OH}}} \right)_{\rm{n}}}(C6​H6​O−CH2​OH)n​. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. Captions. bakelite structure. Experiment # 1: Preparation of Bakelite. The condensation reaction of phenol and formaldehyde results in the product Bakelite. Marked the introduction of the most readily found colors are yellow, ranging from telephones, electrical,...: better mouldability, greater toughness and strength, and shock-resistance wikis ; Metadata ; higher. Bugs ) should keep an eye out for considering how prices have risen over last. Of years, humans used stone to fashion tools of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite are made by Bakelite of cross-linked... The natural physical appearance of Bakelite are used into heated moulds under high pressure it contains,... Bakelite strong as an ox with aid of leading steel giants with.! Alloys of copper, and formaldehyde 548 pixels, File size structure of bakelite 16 KB, type., kitchenware, toys, and formaldehyde are cross-linked formed from a condensation of. Users and is reviewed by myCBSEguide team against our … File:3-D structure of Bakelite by chains! 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